BIOLOGY
The Cell: Plasma Membrane: Structure
- The Fluid Mosaic Model
- Membrane Junctions
The Cell: Plasma Membrane: Membrane Transport
- Passive Processes
- Active Processes
The Cell: Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm - composition
- Cytoplasmic Organells (structure and function) mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi aparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton,
- Cellular Extensions cilia and flagella, microvilli
The Cell: Nucleus (structure and function)
- The Nuclear Envelope
- Nucleoli
- Chromatin
Cell Growth and Reproduction
- The Cell Life Cycle (Interphase: G1, G0,G2,GS and M in general)
- Protein Synthesis (transcription, translation in general)
Human tissues - classification and the most characteristic features
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Nervous Tissue
Muscle Tissue
The Skin
Functions of the Integumentary System, as follow
- Protection
- Body Temperature Regulation
- Cutaneous Sensation
- Metabolic Functions
- Blood Reservoir
- Excretion
Classification and Functions of Bones
Bone Structure
- Gross Anatomy
- Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
- Chemical Composition of Bone
Axial skeleton:
Bones: frontal, parietal, occipical, mandible, maxilla, temporal, zygomatic, nasal; external auditory canal, styloid process, foramen magnum; the orbits, nasal cavity, the hyoid bone
General Characteristics, Regions and Curvatures, intervertebral disc, General Structure of Vertebrae
Appendicular skeleton (list and classifies the bones):
- pectoral (shoulder) girdle
- upper limb
- pelvic (hip) gridle
- lower limb
Classification and function of joints
Fibrous Joints
Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial Joints
- General Structure
- Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
Types of Muscle Tissue
Special Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
Muscle Functions
Skeletal Muscle
- Gross Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle
- Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fiber
- Sliding Filament Model of Contraction
- Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
- Muscle Metabolism
- Providing Energy for Contraction (aerobic, anaerobic respiration)
Smooth Muscle
- Microscopic Structure of Smooth Muscle Fibers
- Contraction of Smooth Muscle
Blood
Blood composition and functions.
Blood plasma.
Formed elements.
- Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
- Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
- Platelets
Lymphatic system (list the organs and known their function)
lymph
lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
Spleen
Thymus
tonsils
Innate defenses:
Surface barriers: skin and mucosae.
Phagocytes
Natural Killer Cells
Interferon
Adaptive defenses
anitgens - definition
Lymphocytes T and B
The circulatory system
The pulmonary and systemic circuits (main characteristic, differences between them)
Basic anatomy of the Heart
- Location
- Coverings of the Heart (pericardium)
- Layers of the Heart Wall
- Chambers and Associated Great Vessels
- Heart Valves
- Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
Coronary Circulation (right and left coronary artery, coronary sinus; function of coronary circulation)
Type of blood vessels
Respiratory system
Basic Anatomy and function of Respiratory System (list the organs of respiratory system and provide their function)
- The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
- The Pharynx
- The Larynx
- The Trachea
- The Bronchi and Subdivisions
- The Lungs and Pleurae
The digestive system
Basic anatomy and function of digestive system (list the organs of digestive system and provide their function)
- The Mouth and Associated Organs
- The Mouth
- The Tongue
- The Salivary Glands
- The Teeth
- The Pharynx
- The Esophagus
- The Stomach
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
Digestive system accessory glands (function, localization)
The Liver and Gallbladder
The Pancreas
The urinary system
Kidney
- Location and external anatomy
- Internal Gross Anatomy
- Nephrons
Kidney Physiology: Mechanism of Urine Formation
- Step 1: Glomerular Filtration
- Step 2: Tubular Reabsorption
- Step 3: Tubular Secretion
Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination
- Ureters
- Urinary Bladder
- Urethra
- Micturition
The endocrine system and hormones
Hormones
Pituitary-Hypothalamic Relationships
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
The Posterior Pituitary and Hypothalamic Hormones
The Thyroid Gland
The Parathyroid Glands
The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands
The Pancreas
The Gonads and Placenta
Pineal gland
The male reproductive system.
Basic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
- The Scrotum
- The Testes
- The Male Perineum
- The Penis
- The Male Duct System
- The Male Accessory Glands (seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands)
- Semen
- Spermatogenesis (what it is, what type of cell division is implicated in sperm production)
- male hormons
The female reproductive system.
Basic Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
- The Ovaries
- The Female Duct System
- The External Genitalia
- The Mammary Glands
- female hormones
- oogenesis (what it is, what type of cell division is implicated in ovum production)
Fertilization- definition
The nervous system
Functions and Divisions of the Nervous System (Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system)
Neurons and glial cells
Basis of action potential
Basic structure of synaps
Neurotransmitters
Brain (structure, function and localisation)
Spinal cord (structure, function and localisation)
Protection of the Brain
- Meninges
- Cerebrospinal Fluid
Organs of sensation
The Eye
- Accessory Structures of the Eye
- Structure of the Eyeball
- Photoreceptors
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell (organs)
The Ear: Hearing and Balance
- basic division of ear
- ear function
MATHEMATICS
Number
Routine use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, using integers, decimals and fractions, including order of operations.
Simple positive exponents.
Simplification of expressions involving roots (surds or radicals).
Prime numbers and factors, including greatest common divisors and least common multiples.
Simple applications of ratio, percentage and proportion, linked to similarity.
Definition and elementary treatment of absolute value (modulus), ǀ a ǀ .
Rounding, decimal approximations and significant figures, including appreciation of errors.
Expression of numbers in standard form (scientific notation), that is, a ×10^{k} , 1≤ a <10.
Sets and numbers
Concept and notation of sets, elements, universal (reference) set, empty (null) set, complement, subset, equality of sets, disjoint sets.
Operations on sets: union and intersection.
Commutative, associative and distributive properties.
Venn diagrams.
Number systems: natural numbers; integers; rationals and irrationals; real numbers.
Intervals on the real number line using set notation and using inequalities. Expressing the solution set of a linear inequality on the number line and in set notation.
Mappings of the elements of one set to another. Illustration by means of sets of ordered pairs, tables, diagrams and graphs.
Algebra
Manipulation of simple algebraic expressions involving factorization and expansion, including quadratic expressions.
Rearrangement, evaluation and combination of simple formulae. Examples from other subject areas, particularly the sciences, should be included.
The linear function and its graph, gradient and y-intercept.
Addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions.
The properties of order relations: <, ≤, >, ≥ .
Solution of equations and inequalities in one variable, including cases with rational coefficients.
Solution of simultaneous equations in two variables.
Trigonometry
Angle measurement in degrees. Compass directions and three figure bearings.
Right-angle trigonometry. Simple applications for solving triangles.
Pythagoras’ theorem and its converse.
Geometry
Simple geometric transformations: translation, reflection, rotation, enlargement. Congruence and similarity, including the concept of scale factor of an enlargement.
The circle, its centre and radius, area and circumference. The terms “arc”, “sector”, “chord”, “tangent” and “segment”.
Perimeter and area of plane figures. Properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, including parallelograms, rhombuses, rectangles, squares, kites and trapeziums (trapezoids); compound shapes.
Volumes of prisms, pyramids, spheres, cylinders and cones.
Coordinate geometry
Elementary geometry of the plane, including the concepts of dimension for point, line, plane and space. The equation of a line in the form y = mx + c .
Parallel and perpendicular lines, including m_{1} = m_{2} and m_{1} m_{2} = −1.
Geometry of simple plane figures.
The Cartesian plane: ordered pairs (x, y) , origin, axes.
Mid-point of a line segment and distance between two points in the Cartesian plane and in three dimensions.
Statistics and probability
Descriptive statistics: collection of raw data; display of data in pictorial and diagrammatic forms, including pie charts, pictograms, stem and leaf diagrams, bar graphs and line graphs.
Obtaining simple statistics from discrete and continuous data, including mean, median, mode, quartiles, range, interquartile range.
Calculating probabilities of simple events.
[source: IB Mathematics SL guide]
PHYSICS
- SI units. How to convert units from one unit system to another.
- Vectors. Scalars. Graphical representation of vectors. Examples of vectors. Addition of vectors and subtraction of vector
- Forces. NET force. Force diagrams. Newton’s laws of motion. Normal force. Friction force. Tension.
- Motion. Displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Displacement-time graphs. Velocity-time graphs. Acceleration-time graphs. Circular motion. Linear motion equations
- Momentum. Impulse. Law of conservation of linear momentum. Elastic and inelastic collisions.
- Work and energy. Types of energy. Mechanical energy. Law of conservation of mechanical energy. Power.
- Newtonian Gravitation. Mass and weight. Falling bodies.
- Simple Harmonic Motion. Vibrating mass on a spring. Simple pendulums.
- Waves. Properties and types of waves. Transverse and longitudinal waves. Characteristics of waves (amplitude, wavelength, period, frequency, speed).
- Sound. Nature of sound. Ultrasounds. Speed of sound.
- Gasses . Ideal gasses. Pressure of a gas. Kinetic theory of gasses.
- Solids. Deformation of solids . Strain, stress. Elastic behavior.
- Fluids. Pressure. Archimedes' principle. Buoyancy. Flotation. Pascal's Principle
- Properties of matter. Phases of matter. Density. Change of phase.
- Heat. Temperature. Thermal expansion. Heat and temperature change: specific heat capacity. Heat and phase change: latent heat. Heat transfer. Temperature scale.
- Electrostatics. Charge. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Electrical potential. Strength of the electric field.
- Electricity. Voltage, current and resistance. Ohm’s law. Power in electric circuits. Capacitor. Capacitance. Series and parallel circuits. Kirchhoff’s rules.
- Magnetism. Magnetic fields. Long, straight current-carrying wires. Moving charged particles in magnetic field.
- The electromagnetic spectrum. Nature of electromagnetic waves. Speed of light.
- Geometrical optics. Lenses. Curved mirrors. Ray diagrams. Magniﬁcation. Refraction. Reﬂection. Law of reﬂection. Law of refraction. Splitting of white light.
- The Atom. Structure of the atom. Isotopes. Ionization energy.
- Radioactivity. Decay law. Danger of the ionizing radiation. Nuclear α, β, and γ rays.
CHEMISTRY
1 Matter and measurement
The metric system
Mass
Length
Volume
Density
Temperature
Three states of matter
2 The composition of matter
The atom
Charge
Atomic number
Atomic mass
The structure of atoms
Isotopes
Elements
Atomic weight
The periodic table
3 Chemical bonding
The chemical bond
Covalent bonding
The molecule
Polar covalent bonds
Valence
Naming covalent compounds
Ions
Charges of ions
Ionic bonds
4 Compounds and chemical change
Formula or molecular weight of compounds
The mole
Chemical reactions
Balancing chemical equations
Interpreting equations
Calculations based on equations
Types of reactions
Oxidation-reduction reactions
Energy and chemical reactions
Reversibility of reactions
Rate of a reaction
5 Gases and respiration
Kinetic molecular theory
Diffusion
Temperature
Pressure
The gas laws: pressure and volume
The gas laws: pressure and temperature
The gas laws: volume and temperature
The gas laws: the quantity of gas
Air and partial pressures
6 Water
The structure of water
Kinetic theory of liquids and solids
Evaporation
Heat and the states of water
Density
Surface tension
Viscosity
Water pressure
7 Solutions
Types of solutions
The process of dissolving
Solubility of solids
Saturation
The solubility of liquids and gases
Concentration of solutions—percentage
Molarity
Dilution of solutions
Osmosis
Colloids
8 Acids, bases, and salts
Acids
Properties of acids
Bases
Properties of bases
The pH of acids and bases
Measurement of pH
Neutralization
Salts and hydrolysis
Buffers
9 Organic chemistry—hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Reactions of alkanes
Alkenes
Reactions of alkenes
Alkynes
Cycloalkanes
Aromatic hydrocarbons—benzene
Properties of benzene
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
10 Oxygen derivatives of the hydrocarbons
Functional groups
Alcohols
Examples of alcohols
Reactions of alcohols
Ethers
Reactions of ethers
Aldehydes
Reactions of aldehydes
Ketones
Acids
Reactions of acids
Esters
Reactions of esters
11 Other organic derivatives and polymers
Halogen derivatives
Sulfur derivatives
Nitrogen derivatives—amines
Reactions of amines
Nitrogen derivatives—amides
Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
Nitrogen derivatives—alkaloids
Other nitrogen derivatives
Organic polymers
Addition polymers
Condensation polymers
12 Carbohydrates
Classification of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Open and closed forms of monosaccharides
Glucose
Other hexoses—galactose and fructose
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Reactions of carbohydrates
Optical isomers and carbohydrates
13 Lipids
Fatty acids
Soaps and detergents
Waxes
Fats and oils
Properties of fats and oils
14 Proteins
The amino acids
Properties of amino acids
Primary structure of proteins
Secondary structure of proteins
Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins
Examples of protein structure
Classification of proteins
Properties of proteins
Denaturation of proteins
15 Basic mathematics for chemistry
Fractions, decimals, and percent
Scientific (exponential) notation
Proportions and algebra
The unit-factor method
Metric system conversions
Conversions within the metric system