BIOLOGY
THE GLOBAL EDITION OF BIOLOGY: A GLOBAL APPROACH
11TH EDITION
BY URRY AND CAIN CAMPBELL
- The role of chemistry in biology (including biological macromolecules and lipids, the molecules of life, the energy of life).
- Cell biology: cell structure and function, the fundamental units of life, cell membranes, cellular signaling, cellular messaging, cell respiration, mitosis - the key roles of cell division.
- The genetic basis of life: meiosis, mendelian genetics, chromosomes, nucleic acids and inheritance, expression of genes, the flow of genetic information (transcription, translation, mutations), control of gene expression, DNA technology, the evolution of genomes (different genomes; noncoding DNA; multigene families; duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of DNA as a contribution to genome evolution).
- Evolution: phylogenetic reconstruction, microevolution, species and speciation, macroevolution.
- Viruses: a virus - a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat, viruses replication in host cells, viruses and prions as formidable pathogens in animals and plants.
- Prokaryotes: structure and functions of prokaryotes; rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination - a genetic diversity in prokaryotes; diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations in prokaryotes, diverse set of prokaryotes lineages; crucial roles of prokaryotes in the biosphere; an impact of prokaryotes on humans.
- The origin and evolution of eukaryotes.
- Fungi: fungi as heterotrophs feeded by absorption; sexual or asexual life cycles of fungi; diverse set of fungi lineages; roles of fungi in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare.
- Invertebrates (sponges, cnidarians, lophotrochozoans, ecdysozoans, echinoderms and chordates).
- The animal body - diverse forms, common challenges:
- animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
- feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals
- homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior
- energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment
- Chemical signals - the body’s long-distance regulators:
- hormones and other signaling molecules bind to target receptors, triggering specific response pathways
- feedback regulation and coordination with the nervous system are common in hormone pathways
- endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating homeostasis, development, and behavior
- a diet must supply chemical energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients
- food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
- organs specialized for sequential stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system
- evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet
- feedback circuits regulate digestion, energy storage, and appetite
- circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body
- coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals
- patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels
- blood components function in exchange, transport, and defense
- gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces
- breathing ventilates the lungs
- adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport gases
- osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes
- diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme
- the nephron is organized for stepwise processing of blood filtrate
- hormonal circuits link kidney function, water balance, and blood pressure
- Animal reproductive systems:
- fertilization depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species
- reproductive organs produce and transport gametes
- the interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates reproduction in mammals
- in placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mother’s uterus
- fertilization and cleavage initiate embryonic development
- morphogenesis involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and survival
- cytoplasmic determinants and inductive signals regulate cell fate
- Defenses against infection:
- in innate immunity, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens
- in adaptive immunity, receptors provide pathogen-specific recognition
- adaptive immunity defends against infection of body fluids and body cells
- disruptions in immune system function can elicit or exacerbate disease
- neuron structure and organization reflect function in information transfer
- ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron
- action potentials are the signals conducted by axons
- neurons communicate with other cells at synapses
- nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells
- the vertebrate brain is regionally specialized
- the cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions
- changes in synaptic connections underlie memory and learning
- many nervous system disorders can now be explained in molecular terms
- sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system
- in hearing and equilibrium, mechanoreceptors detect moving fluid or settling particles
- the diverse visual receptors of animals depend on light-absorbing pigments
- the senses of taste and smell rely on similar sets of sensory receptors
- the physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function
- skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion
- The ecology of life.
- Biodiversity and communities.
MATHEMATICS
Number
Routine use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, using integers, decimals and fractions, including order of operations.
Simple positive exponents.
Simplification of expressions involving roots (surds or radicals).
Prime numbers and factors, including greatest common divisors and least common multiples.
Simple applications of ratio, percentage and proportion, linked to similarity.
Definition and elementary treatment of absolute value (modulus), ǀ a ǀ .
Rounding, decimal approximations and significant figures, including appreciation of errors.
Expression of numbers in standard form (scientific notation), that is, a ×10^{k} , 1≤ a <10.
Sets and numbers
Concept and notation of sets, elements, universal (reference) set, empty (null) set, complement, subset, equality of sets, disjoint sets.
Operations on sets: union and intersection.
Commutative, associative and distributive properties.
Venn diagrams.
Number systems: natural numbers; integers; rationals and irrationals; real numbers.
Intervals on the real number line using set notation and using inequalities. Expressing the solution set of a linear inequality on the number line and in set notation.
Mappings of the elements of one set to another. Illustration by means of sets of ordered pairs, tables, diagrams and graphs.
Algebra
Manipulation of simple algebraic expressions involving factorization and expansion, including quadratic expressions.
Rearrangement, evaluation and combination of simple formulae. Examples from other subject areas, particularly the sciences, should be included.
The linear function and its graph, gradient and y-intercept.
Addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions.
The properties of order relations: <, ≤, >, ≥ .
Solution of equations and inequalities in one variable, including cases with rational coefficients.
Solution of simultaneous equations in two variables.
Trigonometry
Angle measurement in degrees. Compass directions and three figure bearings.
Right-angle trigonometry. Simple applications for solving triangles.
Pythagoras’ theorem and its converse.
Geometry
Simple geometric transformations: translation, reflection, rotation, enlargement. Congruence and similarity, including the concept of scale factor of an enlargement.
The circle, its centre and radius, area and circumference. The terms “arc”, “sector”, “chord”, “tangent” and “segment”.
Perimeter and area of plane figures. Properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, including parallelograms, rhombuses, rectangles, squares, kites and trapeziums (trapezoids); compound shapes.
Volumes of prisms, pyramids, spheres, cylinders and cones.
Coordinate geometry
Elementary geometry of the plane, including the concepts of dimension for point, line, plane and space. The equation of a line in the form y = mx + c .
Parallel and perpendicular lines, including m_{1} = m_{2} and m_{1} m_{2} = −1.
Geometry of simple plane figures.
The Cartesian plane: ordered pairs (x, y) , origin, axes.
Mid-point of a line segment and distance between two points in the Cartesian plane and in three dimensions.
Statistics and probability
Descriptive statistics: collection of raw data; display of data in pictorial and diagrammatic forms, including pie charts, pictograms, stem and leaf diagrams, bar graphs and line graphs.
Obtaining simple statistics from discrete and continuous data, including mean, median, mode, quartiles, range, interquartile range.
Calculating probabilities of simple events.
[source: IB Mathematics SL guide]
PHYSICS
- Scientific notation
- International System (SI) of units
- Unit conversion
Vectors and scalars
- Examples of scalar quantities
- Graphic representation of vectors
- Vector components
- Vector addition and subtraction
Kinematics
- Displacement, velocity, and acceleration
- Fundamental kinematics equation
- Free fall
- Projectile motion
- Motion graph
Forces and Newton’s Laws
- Force, mass, and weight
- Normal force
- Friction
- Tension
- NET force
- Newton’s first law
- Newton’s second law
- Newton’s third law
- Free-body diagrams
Equilibrium
- Torque
- Condition for static equilibrium
Work, Energy and Momentum
- Work done by constant force
- Work done by variable force
- Power
- Kinetic energy
- Gravitational potential energy
- Conservation of mechanical energy
- Work-energy theorem
- Momentum
- Impulse
- Conservation of linear momentum
- Elastic and inelastic collisions
Simple Harmonic Motion
Mechanical Waves and Sound
- Characteristics of waves
- Longitudinal waves
- Standing waves
- Speed of sound
- Sound intensity
- Sound level and decibels
- Doppler effect
Fluids
- Pressure and density
- Pressure in static fluid column
- Pascal’s principle
- Buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle
Gases
- Mole, Avogadro’s number
- Ideal gas low
- Kinetic theory of gases
- Thermal process using ideal gas: isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic
Solids
- Elastic properties of solid
- Stress, strain, and Young’s modulus
Temperature and heat
- Common temperature scales
- Thermometers
- Thermal expansion
- Heat
- Transfer of heat: conduction, convection, and radiation
- Heat and temperature change
- Specific heat capacity
Thermodynamics
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Entropy
Electrostatics
- Electric charge
- Conductors and insulators
- Electric filed
- Coulomb's law equation
- Electric potential
Electric current
- Current, voltage, and resistance
- Ohm’s law
- Electric power
- Resistance in series and in parallel
- Kirchoff’s laws
- Capacitance of capacitor
- Parallel plate capacitor
Magnetism
- Magnetic Filed
- Force that magnetic field exert on moving charged particles
- Long, straight current –carrying wire
Electromagnetic Waves
- Transverse wave
- Electromagnetic spectrum
- Visible light
- Color of light
Optics
- Reflection and refraction of light
- Index of refraction
- Total internal reflection
- Dispersion of light
- Mirrors and images
- Types of lenses
- Images formed by lenses
- Thin-Lens equation and magnification equation
Radioactivity
- decay
- decay
- decay
- Law of radioactive decay
- Half-life
- Activity of sample
CHEMISTRY
1 The composition of matter
The atom
Charge
Atomic number
Atomic mass
The structure of atoms
Isotopes
Elements
Atomic weight
The periodic table
2 Chemical bonding
The chemical bond
Covalent bonding
The molecule
Polar covalent bonds
Valence
Naming covalent compounds
Ions
Charges of ions
Ionic bonds
3 Compounds and chemical change
Formula or molecular weight of compounds
The mole
Chemical reactions
Balancing chemical equations
Interpreting equations
Calculations based on equations
Types of reactions
Oxidation-reduction reactions
Energy and chemical reactions
Reversibility of reactions
Rate of a reaction
4 Water
The structure of water
Kinetic theory of liquids and solids
Evaporation
Heat and the states of water
Density
Surface tension
Viscosity
Water pressure
5 Solutions
Types of solutions
The process of dissolving
Solubility of solids
Saturation
The solubility of liquids and gases
Concentration of solutions—percentage
Molarity
Dilution of solutions
Osmosis
Colloids
6 Acids, bases, and salts
Acids
Properties of acids
Bases
Properties of bases
The pH of acids and bases
Measurement of pH
Neutralization
Salts and hydrolysis
Buffers
7 Organic chemistry—hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Reactions of alkanes
Alkenes
Reactions of alkenes
Alkynes
Cycloalkanes
Aromatic hydrocarbons—benzene
Properties of benzene
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
8 Oxygen derivatives of the hydrocarbons
Functional groups
Alcohols
Examples of alcohols
Reactions of alcohols
Ethers
Reactions of ethers
Aldehydes
Reactions of aldehydes
Ketones
Acids
Reactions of acids
Esters
Reactions of esters
9 Other organic derivatives and polymers
Halogen derivatives
Sulfur derivatives
Nitrogen derivatives—amines
Reactions of amines
Nitrogen derivatives—amides
Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
Nitrogen derivatives—alkaloids
Other nitrogen derivatives
Organic polymers
Addition polymers
Condensation polymers
10 Carbohydrates
Classification of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Open and closed forms of monosaccharides
Glucose
Other hexoses—galactose and fructose
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Reactions of carbohydrates
Optical isomers and carbohydrates
11 Lipids
Fatty acids
Soaps and detergents
Waxes
Fats and oils
Properties of fats and oils
12 Proteins
The amino acids
Properties of amino acids
Primary structure of proteins
Secondary structure of proteins
Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins
Examples of protein structure
Classification of proteins
Properties of proteins
Denaturation of proteins
13 Basic mathematics for chemistry
Fractions, decimals, and percent
Scientific (exponential) notation
Proportions and algebra
The unit-factor method
Metric system conversions
Conversions within the metric system